Brain

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Image:Brains.jpg In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for "in the head"), is the higher, supervisory center of the nervous system. The term 'brain' is typically used in connection with vertebrate nervous systems, and less often with regard to the nervous system of invertebrates. In the latter, neural control is performed by collections of ganglia. The brain is an extremely complex organ: the human brain is a collection of 100 billion neurons, each linked with up to 25,000 others. This huge number of interconnecting neurons, often referred to as a neural ensemble, is what makes the brain intelligent—enabling humans to analyze sensory signals, control the body, and think. In most animals, the brain is located in the head, close to the primary sensory apparatus and the mouth.

Hippocrates considered the brain to be the seat of thought, while Aristotle believed it to be a cooling system for the blood. Today the study of the mind and brain consists of Neuroscience, the field of biology that studies the brain at its various levels of organization (from single neurons to functional systems such as visual system, auditory system, motor system and others); and psychology, the study of the cognition that arises from the neural function of the brain. Attempts have also been made to directly "read" the brain, which has been accomplished in a rudimentary manner through a brain-computer interface. In recent years, several institutions and bodies have undertaken research on recreating the neural structure of the brain with aim to produce human-like cognition and intelligence in computers.

The brain controls and coordinates most movement, behavior and homeostatic body functions (such as heartbeat, blood pressure, fluid balance and body temperature). The brain is responsible for cognition, emotion, memory, motor learning and other kinds of learning. However, many behaviors, such as simple reflexes and basic locomotion, can be executed under spinal cord control alone.

Contents

The importance of the brain

The brain in animals

Three groups of animals, with some exceptions, have notably complex brains: the arthropods (insects and crustaceans), the cephalopods (octopuses, squid, and similar mollusks), and the craniates (vertebrates and their cousins). The brain of arthropods and cephalopods arises from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. In arthropod, the brain consists of a central brain with three divisions and large optical lobes behind each eye for visual processing. Image:Squidu.jpg The brain of craniates develops from the anterior section of a single dorsal nerve cord, which later becomes the spinal cord. In craniates, the brain is protected by the bones of the skull. In vertebrates, increasing complexity in the cerebral cortex correlates with height on the phylogenetic and evolutionary tree. Primitive vertebrates, like fish, reptiles, and amphibians have cortices with fewer than six layers of neurons, a structure known as allocortex (also named heterotypic cortex) (Martin, 1996). More complex vertebrates such as mammals have developed a six-layered neocortex (other terms: homotypic cortex, neocortex, neopallium), in addition to having some parts of the brain that are allocortex (Martin, 1996). In mammals, increasing convolutions of the brain, called gyri, are characteristic of animals with more advanced brains. These convolutions evolved to provide a larger surface area for a greater number of neurons, while keeping the volume of the brain compact enough to fit inside the skull.

The human brain

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}} The structure of the human brain is different from that of other animals in several significant ways. These differences have allowed for many abilities over and above those of other animals, such as advanced cognitive skills. Human encephalization is especially pronounced in the neocortex, the most complex part of the cerebral cortex. The proportion of the human brain that is devoted to the neocortex—and the most advanced part within it, the prefrontal cortex—is larger than in all other animals.

Humans enjoy unique neural capacities, but much of the human neuroarchitecture is shared with ancient species. Basic systems that alert the nervous system to stimulus, that sense events in the environment, and that monitor the condition of the body are similar to those of the most basic vertebrates. The neural circuitry underlying human consciousness includes both the advanced neocortex and protypical structures of the brain stem. The human brain also has a a million billion synaptic connections, making it one of the most densely connected network systems in the known universe; however, more complex structures may exist.

Pathology of the brain

The loss of function in the brain fulfills some definitions of death. Injuries to the brain tend to affect large areas of the organ, sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence, memory and control of the body. Head trauma, caused, for example, by vehicle and industrial accidents, is a leading cause of death in youth and middle age. In these cases, more damage is typically caused by resultant swelling (edema) than by the impact itself. Stroke, caused by the blockage of blood vessels in the brain, is another major cause of death from brain damage.

Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases rather than injuries. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neurone disease, and Huntington's disease, are caused by the gradual death of individual neurons, leading to decrements in movement control, memory, and cognition. Currently, only the symptoms of these diseases can be treated, but stem cell research may offer a cure. Mental illness, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, are brain diseases that impact on the personality and typically on other aspects of mental and somatic function. These disorders may be treated by psychiatric therapy, by pharmaceutical intervention, or by a combination of treatments; therapeutic effectiveness varies significantly among individuals. Image:Mouse embryonic stem cells.jpg Some infectious diseases affecting the brain are caused by viral and bacterial infection(s). Infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain, can lead to meningitis. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as mad cow disease), is deadly in cattle and is linked to prions. Kuru is a similar prion-borne degenerative brain disease affecting humans. Both are linked to the ingestion of neural tissue, and may be an evolutionary defense against cannibalism. Viral or bacterial causes have been substantiated in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Lyme disease, encephalopathy and encephalomyelitis.

Some brain disorders are congenital. Tay-Sachs disease, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and Tourette syndrome are all linked to genetic and chromosomal errors. Malfunctions in the embryonic development of the brain can be caused by genetic factors, by drug use, and disease during a mother's pregnancy.

Other matters

Some philosophers consider that "brain" is synonymous with "mind", while others (such as strong AI theorists) believe that the mind is analogous to software and the brain to hardware. This issue—related to the mind-body problem—and many other issues, are the subjects of the area of the philosophy of mind. Questions asked in this field typically relate to the nature of consciousness and whether non-human animals are conscious beings.

Computer scientists have produced computer systems called neural networks, loosely based on the structure of neuron connections in the brain. Artificial intelligence seeks to replicate brain function—although not necessarily brain mechanisms—but as yet is an immature science. Creating algorithms to mimic a biological brain is extremely difficult because the brain is not a static arrangement of circuits, but a network of vastly interconnected neurons that are constantly changing their connectivity and sensitivity. More recent work in both neuroscience and artificial intelligence models the brain using the mathematical tools of chaos theory and dynamical systems.

Brain activity can be detected by electrodes, raising the possibility of "brain-computer interface". The reverse path has been demonstrated: brain implants have been used to generate artificial hearing and (crude and experimental) artificial vision for deaf and blind people; brain pacemakers are now commonly used to regulate brain activity in conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

Both of these avenues of research are confronted with potentially serious ethical implications. For example, by placing electrodes in the brain and using a remote control, researchers have been able to remotely control the movements of a rat, combining commands of what to do with the stimulation of the brain pleasure centers. This raises the possibility of creating an electronically controlled biological "ratbot" that could be used in dangerous circumstances.

The biology of the brain

Despite the variance of the species in which the brain is found there are many common features in its cellular make-up, its structure and its function. On a cellular level, the brain is composed of two classes of cell, neurons and glia, both of which contain several different cell types which perform different functions. Interconnected neurons form neural networks (or neural ensembles). These networks are similar to man-made electrical circuits in that they contain circuit elements (neurons) connected by biological wires (nerve fibers). Of course, these do not form simple one-to-one electrical circuits (as is the case in many man-made circuits), neurons typically connect to at least a thousand other neurons[1]. These highly specialized circuits make up systems which are the basis of perception, action and higher cognitive function.

The brain contains anatomical and functional divides. In mammals, the most obvious partitioning of the brain is into the cerebrum (Latin for "brain", a large, anterior part that consists of two convoluted hemispheres and deep nuclei), cerebellum (Latin for "small brain", a smaller, structure behind the cerebrum with two rippled hemispheres and deep cerebellar nuclei), and brain stem (an elongated structure connecting the brain to the spinal cord). These parts are further divided into hemispheres, lobes, gyri, cortices, cytoarchitectonic and functional areas, nuclei, layers, fiber tracks and so forth.

In summary, the chemical and electrical impulses continually passing through the cells of the brain produce all control, action and cognitive function in the body.

Histology

Image:Neuron.jpg Neurons, the cells that generate action potentials and convey them to other cells, constitute the chief class of brain cells. In each particular brain area, input (or afferent) neurons, output (or efferent) neurons and interneurons are typically found. Input neurons are recipients of projections from other brain areas. Output neurons project to the other areas. Interneurons are the neurons which do not leave the area. In addition to neurons, the brain contains glial cells in the proportion roughly 10 glial cells to every neuron; these are traditionally seen to perform supportive roles to neurons and fill out the space between them (hence its name, Greek for 'glue'). Most types of glia in the brain (and the rest of the central nervous system) are present in the entire nervous system, exceptions include oligodendrocytes which insulate neural axons (a role performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system). Oligosaccharides are the defining factor between white matter and grey matter in the brain—white matter is composed of myelinated (insulated) axons, whereas grey matter contains mostly cell soma, dendrites and unmyelinated portions of axons and glia and a smaller proportion of myelinated axons.

In mammals, the brain also contains a certain amount of connective tissue called the meninges which is a system of membranes that separate the skull from the brain. The three-layered covering is made of, from the outside in, dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater (the latter two are connected and thus often considered as a single layer, the pia-arachnoid). Below the arachnoid is the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid which protects the nervous system. Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through the perivascular space above the pia mater. A blood-brain barrier protects the brain from unwanted substances that might enter it through the blood.

The brain is suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, which circulates between layers of the meninges and through cavities in the brain called ventricles. It is important both chemically (metabolism) and mechanically (shock-prevention).

Anatomy

Although the histology of the brain is common to all those who have one, the structural anatomy is not. Apart from the general nature of the brain to order into lobes and suchforth, the lobes into which it has evolved are not common across the vertebrate/invertebrate divide. There are further dissimilarities within invertebrates, though vertebrates tend to share certain commonalities.

Invertebrates

In insects, the brain can be divided into four parts, the optical lobes, the protocerebrum, the deutocerebrum, and the tritocerebrum. The optical lobes are positioned behind each eye and process visual stimuli (Butler, 2000). The protocerebrum contains the mushroom bodies, which respond to smell, and the central body complex. The deutocerebrum includes the antennal lobes, which are similar to the mammalian olfactory bulb, and the mechanosensory neuropils which receive information from touch receptors on the head and antennae. The antennal lobes of flies and moths are quite complex.

In cephalopods, the brain is divided into two regions: the supraesophageal mass and the subesophageal mass. These parts are divided by the animal's esophagus. The supra- and subesophageal masses are connected to each other on either side of the esophagus by the basal lobes and the dorsal magnocellular lobes. The large optic lobes are sometimes not considered to be part of the brain proper since the optic lobes anatomically separate from the brain and are joined to the brain by the optic stalks. However, the optic lobes perform much of the visual processing and can be functionally considered to be a part of the brain.

Vertebrates

In vertebrates, a gross division into three major parts is used: hindbrain (medulla oblongata and metencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon) and forebrain (diencephalon and telencephalon). Varied taxonomies have been used by assorted schools at various times in history for the study of diverse species.

An anterior part of the telencephalon called the cerebrum makes up the largest section of the mammalian brain and in humans, its surface has many deep fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri), giving a wrinkled appearance to the brain. In most vertebrates the metencephalon is the highest integration center in the brain, whereas in mammals this role has been adopted by the cerebrum. Behind (or in humans, below) the cerebrum is the cerebellum, a convoluted structure whose neural circuitry is often compared with crystal structure. Cerebellum participates in the control of movement. The cerebellum attaches to the hindbrain in a structure called the pons. The cerebrum and the cerebellum consist each of two halves (hemispheres). The corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. An outgrowth of the telencephalon called the olfactory bulb is a major structure in many animals, but in humans and other primates, it is relatively small.

Vertebrate nervous systems are distinguished by encephalization and bilateral symmetry. Encephalization refers to the tendency for more complex organisms to gain a larger-size brains through evolutionary time. Larger vertebrates develop a complex of layered, networked and convoluted grey matter and white matter. Grey matter refers to tissue mostly comprised of neurons and can be found on the surface of cerebral cortex, as well as in clusters called nuclei deep within the brain. White matter refers to axons and their surrounding myelin insulation, which gives this tissue its white color. White matter is found in bundles of fibers known as tracts which connect the different parts of the brain. In modern species most closely related to the first vertebrates, brains are covered with gray matter that has a three-layer structure. Their brains also contain deep brain nucleus and fiber tracks forming the white matter. Most regions of the human cerebral cortex have six layers of neurons, a structure known as neocortex.

Brain Regions in Vertebrates

According to the hierarchy based on embryonic and evolutionary development, chordate brains are composed of the following regions:

In addition, the brain is often subdivided into the following major parts:

Yet alternative classifications arrange brain areas into functional systems:

Function

Image:Human brain NIH.jpg

Vertebrate brains receive signals through nerves arriving from the sensors of the organism, interpret those signals and formulate reactions based on built-in programs and learned experiences. A similarly extensive nerve network delivers signals from a brain to control muscles throughout a body. Anatomically, the majority of afferent and efferent nerves (with the exception of cranial nerves) are connected to the spinal cord, which then transfers the signals to the brain.

Sensory input is processed by the brain to recognize danger, find food, identify potential mates and perform more sophisticated functions. Visual, touch, and auditory sensory pathways of vertebrates are routed to specific nuclei of the thalamus and then to regions of the cerebral cortex that are specific to each sensory system: the visual system, the auditory system and the somatosensory system. Olfactory pathways are routed to the olfactory bulb, then to various parts of the olfactory system. Taste is routed through the brainstem and then to other portions of the gustatory system.

To control movement, the brain has several parallel systems of muscle control. The motor system controls voluntary muscle movement, aided by motor areas of the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia — the system that eventually projects to the spinal cord. Nuclei in the brainstem control many involuntary muscle functions such as heartrate and breathing. In addition, many automatic acts (simple reflexes, locomotion) can be controlled by the spinal cord alone.

Brains also produce hormones that can influence organs and glands elsewhere in a body - conversely, brains also react to hormones produced elsewhere in the body. In mammals, most of these hormones are released into the circulatory system by a structure called the pituitary gland.

It is hypothesized that developed brains derive consciousness from interaction among numerous systems within the brain. Cognitive processing in mammals occurs in the cerebral cortex but relies on mid-brain and limbic functions as well, especially those of the thalamus and hippocampus. Among "younger" (in an evolutionary sense) vertebrates, advanced processing involves progressively rostral (forward) regions of the brain.

Hormones, incoming sensory information, and cognitive processing performed by the brain determine the brain state. Stimulus from any source can trigger a general arousal process that focuses cortical operations to processing of the new information. Cognitive priorities are constantly shifted by a variety of factors, such as hunger, fatigue, beliefs, unfamiliar information or threats. The simplest dichotomy related to processing of threats is the fight-or-flight response mediated by the amygdala, among other structures.

The study of the brain

Fields of study

Several areas of science specifically study the brain. Neuroscience seeks to understand the nervous system, including the brain, from a biological perspective. Psychology seeks to understand behavior and the brain. The terms neurology and psychiatry usually refer to medical applications of neuroscience and psychology, respectively. Cognitive science seeks to unify neuroscience and psychology with other fields that concern themselves with the brain, such as computer science (in Artificial intelligence and similar fields) and philosophy.

Methods of observation

Each method for observing activity in the brain has its advantages and drawbacks. Electrophysiology, in which wire electrodes are implanted in the brain, allows scientists to record the electrical activity of individual neurons or fields of neurons, but since it requires invasive surgery, this is a technique usually reserved for lab animals. By placing electrodes on the scalp, electroencephalography (EEG) measures brain waves, which are the mass changes in electrical current from the cerebral cortex, but can only detect changes over large areas of the brain and very little sub-cortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood flow in the brain, but the activity of neurons is not directly measured, nor can it be distinguished whether this activity is inhibitory or excitatory. Similarly, a PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan, is able to monitor glucose intake in different areas within the brain which is correlated the level of activity in that region. Behavioral tests can measure symptoms of disease and mental performance, but only provide indirect measurements of brain function and may not be practical in all animals. Finally, post-mortem analysis of the brain allows for the study of anatomy and protein expression patterns, but is only possible after the human or animal is dead.

History

Ancient Greeks had differing views on the function of the brain. Hippocrates believed the brain to be the seat of intelligence, but Aristotle held that the brain was a cooling mechanism for the blood, while the heart was the seat of intelligence. He reasoned that humans are more rational than the beasts because they have a proportionally larger brain to cool their hot-bloodedness (Bear, 2001).

During the Roman Empire, the anatomist Galen dissected the brains of sheep. He concluded that since the cerebellum was hard on touch, it must control the muscles, while since the cerebrum was soft, it must be where the senses were processed. Galen further theorized that the brain functioned by movement of fluids through the ventricles (Bear, 2001).

In the Age of Reason, René Descartes espoused a fluid mechanical view of the brain similar to Galen's theories. However, Descartes thought that although this explanation was adequate to explain the brain functions of animals, the higher mental functions of humans were accomplished by the soul. This theoretical separation of the mind and brain became known as the mind-body problem (Bear, 2001).

In the mid-1600s, however, great progress in describing the anatomy of the brain was achieved with the works of English anatomist Thomas Willis and Flemish anatomist Vesalius. They dispelled many of the notions of Galen and Descartes and discovered many facts about the macro structure of the brain of animals and humans.

In the 1700s, Luigi Galvani showed that electrically stimulating the sciatic nerve of a dissected frog caused movement of the attached muscle. His experiments led scientists away from the fluid mechanical theory of the brain and toward an electrical theory. In the 19th century, Galvani's work led to the development of research in bioelectricity and to the discovery of the membrane potential and action potential by researchers such as Emil du Bois-Reymond.

The scientists of the 1800s debated whether areas of the brain corresponded to specific functions or if the brain functioned as a whole (the "aggregate field theory"). Jean Pierre Flourens championed the aggregate field theory in opposition to the pseudoscience of phrenology, founded by Franz Joseph Gall. However, the work of Paul Pierre Broca, Karl Wernicke, and Korbinian Brodmann eventually helped to show that areas of the brain had specific functions, though some functions were repeated, an idea known as parallel distributed processing (Kandel, 2001).

As the 20th century approached, the anatomical works of Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi laid the foundation for the study of individual neurons in the brain. Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian furthered the study of neurons with the new techniques of electrodes and the electroencephalogram (EEG). Neurotransmitters were discovered and investigated by a number of scientists, including Otto Loewi, Henry Hallett Dale, Arvid Carlsson and many others.

Modern Neuroscience experiences rapid development. The scientists use a variety of approaches to study the brain at different levels — from the molecules to systems. Extensive knowledge has been accumulated about the electrophysiological properties of different types of neurons and their responsiveness to neurotransmitters. Recordings from the brain of awake, behaving animals pioneered by Edward Evarts help to decode neuronal firing during different behaviors and cognitive processes. Miguel Nicolelis introduce multielectrode recording techniques which led to creation of brain-computer interfaces. Rapidly developing brain imaging allows scientists to study the brain in living humans and animals in ways that their predecessors could not.

The brain as a food

Like most other internal organs, the brain can serve as nourishment. For example, in the Southern United States canned pork brain in gravy can be purchased for consumption as food. This form of brain is often fried with scrambled egg to produce the famous "Eggs n' Brains"[2]. The brain of animals also features in the cuisine of France such as in the dish tête de veau, or head of calf. Although it might consist only of the outer meat of the skull and jaw, the full meal includes the brain, tongue and glands (the latter form being the favorite food of president Jacques Chirac)[3]. Similar delicacies from around the world include Mexican tacos de sesos (tacos made with cattle brain) and squirrel brain in the US South.[4] The Anyang tribe of Cameroon practiced a tradition in which a new chief would consume the brain of a hunted gorilla while another senior member of the tribe would eat the heart[5].

Consuming the brain and other nerve tissue of animals is not without its risks. The first problem is that the brain is made up of 60% fat due to the myelin (which by itself is 70% fat) insulating the axons of neurons and glia[6]. As an example, a 5 oz. (0.14 kg) can of "Pork Brains in Milk Gravy", a single serving, contains 3500 milligrams of cholesterol, 1170% of our recommended daily intake[7]. More importantly, humans can contract fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other (prion diseases), as well as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (colloquially known as "mad cow" disease) through the consumption of the infected nerve tissue of cattle and other animals - However, "there is no evidence that people can get mad cow disease from eating muscle meat"[8]. Another prion disease called kuru has been traced to a mourning ritual among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea in which those close to the dead would eat their brain to create a sense of immortality[9]. Some archaeological evidence suggests that the mourning rituals of European neanderthals also involved the consumption of the brain[10]. The practice of eating another human's brain has been depicted by Hollywood in Hannibal (film) and countless zombie movies.

It is not only humans who eat the brains of other animals. The two species of chimpanzee, though generally vegetarian, are known to eat the brains of monkeys to obtain fat in their diet[11].

External links

Related topics

References

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     |else= (2000)
   }}
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 |then= {{{Editor}}}

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 |then=[{{{URL}}} Principles of Neural Science, Fourth Edition]
 |else=Principles of Neural Science, Fourth Edition

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 |then=, {{{Pages}}}

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 |then=, {{qif
   |test={{{Location|}}}
   |then={{{Location}}}: 
 }}McGraw-Hill, New York

}}{{qif

 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. ISBN 0838577016

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  • {{qif
 |test={{{Authorlink|}}}
 |then={{wikilink
   |1={{{Authorlink}}}
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     |test={{{Author|}}}
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   }}
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   }}
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 |then= {{{Editor}}}

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 |then=[{{{URL}}} Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas, Second Edition]
 |else=Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas, Second Edition

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 |then=, {{{Others}}}

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 |then=, {{{Edition}}}

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 |then=, {{qif
   |test={{{Location|}}}
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 }}McGraw-Hill, New York

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 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. ISBN 007138183X

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  • {{qif
 |test={{{Authorlink|}}}
 |then={{wikilink
   |1={{{Authorlink}}}
   |2={{qif
     |test={{{Author|}}}
     |then=Sala, Sergio Della, editor.
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       |then=, {{{First}}}
     }}
   }}
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   |test={{{Author|}}}
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   }}
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 |else={{qif
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     |then= ({{{Month}}} 1999)
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   }}
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 |then=.

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 |then= {{{Editor}}}

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 |then=[{{{URL}}} Mind myths: Exploring popular assumptions about the mind and brain]
 |else=Mind myths: Exploring popular assumptions about the mind and brain

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   |then={{{Location}}}: 
 }}J. Wiley & Sons, New York

}}{{qif

 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. ISBN 0471983039

}}.

  • {{qif
 |test={{{Authorlink|}}}
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     |test={{{Author|}}}
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     }}
   }}
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 |else={{qif
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   |then=Vander, A., J. Sherman, D. Luciano
   |else={{{Last|}}}{{qif
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     |then=, {{{First}}}
   }}
 }}

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 |then=, {{{Coauthors}}}

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 |then= ({{{Date}}})
 |else={{qif
   |test={{{Year|}}}
   |then={{qif
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     |then= ({{{Month}}} 2001)
     |else= (2001)
   }}
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 |then=[{{{URL}}} Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function]
 |else=Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function

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 |then=, {{qif
   |test={{{Location|}}}
   |then={{{Location}}}: 
 }}McGraw Hill Higher Education

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 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. ISBN 0071180885

}}.

Notes

The following are the sources for individual facts, statistics and information included in the article:

  • ^  Statistic from page 161 of Basic Histology: Text and Atlas, 10th ed. by L.C. Junqueira, and J. Carneiro.
  • ^  outroctrtr

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   |1={{{URL|{{{url|}}}}}}
   |2={{{Title|{{{title|}}}}}}}}
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 |then= {{{Work|{{{work}}}}}}.}}{{qif
 |test={{{Publisher|{{{publisher|}}}}}}
 |then= {{{Publisher|{{{publisher}}}}}}.

}}{{qif

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 |then= URL accessed on [[{{{Date|{{{date}}}}}}]]{{qif
   |test={{{Year|{{{year|}}}}}}
   |then=, [[{{{Year|{{{year}}}}}}]]
 }}

}}.

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 |then= ({{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}})

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   |2={{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}}}}
 |then=.}}{{qif
 |test={{booland
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   |2={{{Title|{{{title|}}}}}}}}
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}}{{qif

 |test={{{format|{{{Format|}}}}}}
 |then= ({{{Format|{{{format}}}}}})

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 |then= {{{Work|{{{work}}}}}}.}}{{qif
 |test={{{Publisher|{{{publisher|}}}}}}
 |then= {{{Publisher|{{{publisher}}}}}}.

}}{{qif

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 |then= URL accessed on [[{{{Date|{{{date}}}}}}]]{{qif
   |test={{{Year|{{{year|}}}}}}
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}}.

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   }}
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 |then={{web reference}}: Parameter url, title and date must be specified 

}}{{{Author|{{{author|}}}}}}{{qif

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 |then= ({{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}})

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   |1={{{Author|{{{author|}}}}}}
   |2={{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}}}}
 |then=.}}{{qif
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   |1={{{URL|{{{url|}}}}}}
   |2={{{Title|{{{title|}}}}}}}}
 |then= [{{{URL|http://www.weird-food.com/weird-food-mammal.html}}} {{{Title|Weird Foods: Mammal}}}].

}}{{qif

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 |then= ({{{Format|{{{format}}}}}})

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 |test={{{Work|{{{work|}}}}}}
 |then= {{{Work|Weird-Food.com}}}.}}{{qif
 |test={{{Publisher|{{{publisher|}}}}}}
 |then= {{{Publisher|{{{publisher}}}}}}.

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 |then= URL accessed on [[{{{Date|14 October}}}]]{{qif
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 }}

}}.

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   |1={{booland
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}}{{{Author|{{{author|}}}}}}{{qif

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 |then= [{{{URL|http://www.berggorilla.de/english/gjournal/texte/18culture.html}}} {{{Title|{{{title}}}}}}].

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 |then= URL accessed on [[{{{Date|{{{date}}}}}}]]{{qif
   |test={{{Year|{{{year|}}}}}}
   |then=, [[{{{Year|{{{year}}}}}}]]
 }}

}}.

  • ^  outroctrtr

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   |1={{booland
     |1={{{URL|{{{url|}}}}}}
     |2={{{Title|{{{title|}}}}}}
   }}
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 |then={{web reference}}: Parameter url, title and date must be specified 

}}{{{Author|{{{author|}}}}}}{{qif

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 |then= ({{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}})

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   |2={{{PublishYear|{{{publishyear|}}}}}}}}
 |then=.}}{{qif
 |test={{booland
   |1={{{URL|{{{url|}}}}}}
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 |then= [{{{URL|http://www.autisminfo.com/dorfman.htm}}} {{{Title|{{{title}}}}}}].

}}{{qif

 |test={{{format|{{{Format|}}}}}}
 |then= ({{{Format|{{{format}}}}}})

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   |test={{{Year|{{{year|}}}}}}
   |then=, [[{{{Year|{{{year}}}}}}]]
 }}

}}.

  • ^  outroctrtr

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   }}
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}}{{{Author|{{{author|}}}}}}{{qif

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 |then=.}}{{qif
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   |1={{{URL|{{{url|}}}}}}
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 |then= [{{{URL|http://thewvsr.com/porkbrains.htm}}} {{{Title|Pork Brains in Milk Gravy}}}].

}}{{qif

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 |then= ({{{Format|{{{format}}}}}})

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 |test={{{Work|{{{work|}}}}}}
 |then= {{{Work|{{{work}}}}}}.}}{{qif
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 |then= URL accessed on [[{{{Date|14 October}}}]]{{qif
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 }}

}}.

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}}.

  • ^  {{qif
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 |else={{qif
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}} {{qif

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 |else=The Aztec Treasure House

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 }}Counterpoint Press

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}}.

<onlyinclude>

Nervous system

Brain - Spinal cord - Central nervous system - Peripheral nervous system - Somatic nervous system - Autonomic nervous system - Sympathetic nervous system - Parasympathetic nervous system

</onlyinclude>

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