Max Born

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Image:Max Born.jpg Max Born (born December 11, 1882 in Breslau, died January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a German mathematician and physicist of Jewish heritage. He won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics. Born was the only child of Gustav Born and Margarete Kauffmann, and was the father of G. V. R. Born, and the maternal grandfather of British born Australian singer and actress Olivia Newton-John. He was one of the 11 signatories to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto.


Education and early work

Initially educated at the König-Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Born went on to study at the University of Breslau followed by Heidelberg University and Zürich University. During this period he came into contact with many prominent scientists and mathematicians including Klein, Hilbert, Minkowski, Runge, Schwarzschild, and Voigt.

In 1909 he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Göttingen where he worked until 1912 when he moved to work at the University of Chicago.


In 1919 after a period in the German army he became a professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main, and then professor at Göttingen, 1921. During this period, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954, some three decades later.

In 1933 he left Germany to escape anti-Semitism and took up a position (Stokes Lecturer) at the University of Cambridge. From 1936 to 1953 he was Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He became a British subject and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1939.

Albert Einstein was a friend of Born's, and it was in a letter to him in 1926 that Einstein made his famous remark regarding quantum mechanics, often paraphrased as "God does not play dice with the universe."

Max and Hedwig Born retired to Bad Pyrmont (10km south of Hamelin (Hameln)) in Germany.

Published Works

  • The Restless Universe - a popularization for students
  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity 1924. (The 1962 Dover edition, page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, Venus, and Earth.)
  • Dynamics of Crystal Lattices(with Huang),
  • Optik
  • Moderne Physik
  • Atomic Physics
  • Principles of Optics (with Emil Wolf),
  • Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance and
  • Zur Quantummechanik.
  • Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, Born solves Kant's puzzle of the Ding an Sich, the thing in itself.

See also: Max Born, Hedwig Born, Albert Einstein. The Born-Einstein Letters.


External links

See also

et:Max Born el:Μαξ Μπορν fr:Max Born it:Max Born he:מקס בורן nl:Max Born ja:マックス・ボルン no:Max Born pl:Max Born pt:Max Born sl:Max Born fi:Max Born tr:Max Born

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