Neuro-linguistic programming

The Television & Movie Wiki: for TV, celebrities, and movies.

Image:Stop hand.png The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is the name of models and principles originally proposed in 1973 by Richard Bandler and John Grinder to describe the relationship between mind (neuro) and language (linguistic, both verbal and non-verbal) and how their interaction is purported to be organized (programming) to affect an individual's mind, body and behavior. It is described by the original developers as "the study of the structure of subjective experience" (Dilts et al 1980), and is predicated upon the assumption that all behaviors have a practically determinable structure (Grinder & Bandler 1975a; [1]). NLP proponents claim that they can duplicate the "magical results" of top communicators and therapists or produce "therapeutic magic" (Sharpley 1987).

A fundamental notion is that human perception and thinking can be formally notated in terms of the five senses (Grinder & Bandler 1979; Dilts et al 1980 p.17; Bandler 1997). The basic tenets include the map-territory relation, the observation of non-verbal behavior such as the subtle movements of the eyes, or body postures, and use of sensory-based language. Some techniques include behavior change, transforming beliefs, and treatment of traumas through techniques such as reframing (Grinder & Bandler 1983; Andreas & Faulkner, 1994) and questioning methods such as the "meta-modeling" (Grinder & Bandler 1975) which can be used to explore personal limits of belief as expressed in language.

The various techniques have been applied to a number of fields such as sales, psychotherapy, communication, education, coaching, sport, business management, interpersonal relationships, seduction, occult and spirituality. This is both through the use of existing patterns, and through modeling "high performers" in various fields.

NLP has been criticized (see criticism section) because reviews of research by scientists such as Heap (1988), Sharpley (1987), Lilienfeld (2003), and (Singer & Lalich 1999) respectively have stated that Neuro-linguistic programming is scientifically unsupported and largely ineffective. Scientists such as Eisner (2000), Lilienfeld et al (2003), Helisch (2004), Williams (2000), and Drenth (2003) also state that NLP is pseudoscientific. Authors such as Salerno (2005) also state NLP is pseudoscience, and have criticized its promotion as self-help, and psychologists such as Singer (1999) and management experts such as Hardiman (1994) have criticized certain quasi-spiritual and unethical uses within management and human resources development. The National Council Against Health Fraud (Loma 2001) classify NLP is a "dubious therapy", and scientists such as Eisner (2000) and Lilienfeld (2003) have raised concern over the promotion within psychological associations due to NLP's dubious and pseudoscientific characteristics.

Contents

Overview

NLP is most widely known as a collection of self-help and communication patterns. NLP is promoted through advertising, sale of books, internal courses within organizations, and seminars. NLP books are widespread in the popular psychology and self development sections of bookshops, and NLP is advertised in various media including the Internet and infomercials. NLP-derived approaches are very often incorporated within other fields and may not in fact be labeled as NLP when taught.

Foundational Assumptions

Distinct from its formal presuppositions, NLP incorporates a variety of foundational assumptions that precede the presuppositions. These are:

  1. There is a mind-body (and some also include spirituality) connection (Grinder and DeLozier, 1986, pp.xx,xxi; Grinder and Bostic St Clair, 2002, ch.3; ibid p.222).
  2. The mind is broadly composed of a conscious and a subconscious (or unconscious) component (Bandler & John Grinder, 1975b, pp.12-13,137,179-99).
  3. A person's experience of the world is processed and organized in terms of the five senses (Grinder & Bandler 1975b p.6; Dilts et al, 1980, p.17).
  4. Physiology, sensory representation ("submodality") and emotion comprise internal state (Dilts and DeLozier, 2000, p.1303).
  5. Behavior is the result of systematically ordered sequences of sensory representations ("strategies") (Bandler & Grinder, 1979 p.30; Dilts et al, 1980, p.6).
  6. All behavior occurs in the context of internal state (Dilts and DeLozier, 2000, p.1300).
  7. Internal state mediates experience and influences or determines behavior (Dilts and DeLozier, 2000, p.1300).
  8. Internal state and strategy -- hence behavior -- have a discernible and communicable structure (Dilts et al, 1980, Ch.3; Dilts and DeLozier, 2000, p.1303-6).
  9. People exhibit their internal state in their language (verbal and non-verbal) (Dilts and DeLozier, 2000, pp.75-77).
  10. Since behavior and its substrates -- internal state and strategy -- can be codified, a person's skill can be reproduced in another person (Dilts et al, 1980, p.14).
  11. Behavior is learned (Dilts et al, 1980, p.4).
  12. Direct and objective knowledge of the (external) world is not possible (Bandler & Grinder, 1975a, pp.7-13; Bandler & Grinder, 1975b, pp.7-8,180-1; Dilts et al, 1980, pp.3-4).

NLP and Theory

Many NLP proponents state that NLP is not theory-oriented, and Bandler states that he does not "do theory" (Singer & Lalich, 1996). Instead, the stated goals of NLP are to model effective patterns "in the field", to learn what someone is actually doing in practice (internally and externally) that works, and how they do it, rather than deriving behaviors from a theory or obtaining their motivations for doing them.

Some Common NLP Techniques and Rituals

Main article{{qif
|test={{{2|}}}|then=s}}: {{qif
 |test={{{1|}}}
 |then=List of NLP topics

}}{{qif

 |test={{{2|}}}
 |then={{{else{{{test|}}}|{{{test{{{test|}}}|{{{then|}}}}}}}}}}|then=, |else= & }}[[{{{2}}}]]

}}{{qif

 |test={{{3|}}}
 |then={{{else{{{test|}}}|{{{test{{{test|}}}|{{{then|}}}}}}}}}}|then=, |else= & }}[[{{{3}}}]]

}}{{qif

 |test={{{4|}}}
 |then={{{else{{{test|}}}|{{{test{{{test|}}}|{{{then|}}}}}}}}}}|then=, |else= & }}[[{{{4}}}]]

}}{{qif

 |test={{{5|}}}
 |then= & [[{{{20}}}]]

}}

  • Metamodel: questions to recover distortion, generalisation and deletion from a speaker (Grinder & Bandler 1975a; [2]).
  • Representational systems: verbal and non-verbal cues such as eye movements, sensory predicates, breathing rate, and body posture are calibrated to identify the modality, type and sequence of internal Visual, Auditory or Kinesthetic representations (Grinder & Bandler 1979; Dilts et al 1980).
  • Perceptual positions: a situation is considered from different people's perspectives (self, other, neutral observer) (Grinder & Delozier 1986; Dilts & Delozier p.938-943).
  • Dilts' Neurological Levels of Learning: categorisation of information into a hierarchies consisting of environment, behavior, competency, belief/value, identity and purpose (or spirit) (Dilts & Delozier 2000).
  • Reframing: alter the meaning of a behavior by offering a different contextual frame (Grinder & Bandler 1979 p.150; Grinder & Bandler 1981 p.92; Grinder & Bandler 1983).
  • Six-step reframing: find alterative options to satisfy the positive intent of unwanted behavior patterns (Grinder & Bandler 1983; Grinder & Bostic-St Clair 2002 ch.2).
  • Swish: a basic "quick-fix" technique that involves swaping a representation of a simple habit with an image of desired self-concept (Bandler 1985).
  • Visual / Kinesthetic synaesthesia dissociation: separates the see-feel circuit that drives reponses to a stimulus. The NLP "phobia cure" uses two place dissociation (Grinder & Bandler 1979; Einspruch & Forman 1988; Carbonell & Figley 1999; [3]).
  • Rapport: pacing and leading attention by matching or mirroring verbal and non-verbal components of behavior such as body movements, breathing, vocal qualities and keywords (Grinder & Bandler 1977; Clabby, PhD, O’Connor, MD 2004).
  • Submodality modification: deliberately altering the coding of internal sensory representations such as location, size and brightness of internal images (Bandler 1982; Steve & Connirae Andreas 1987)

NLP Modeling

NLP modeling is a method proposed for duplicating somebody's competences. It is considered by some practitioners to be at the heart of NLP (Grinder 2003). It can be thought of as the process of discovering relevant distinctions within these experiential components, as well as sequencing of these components aimed to achieve a specific result, and NLP proponents claim that it is used to discover and codify patterns of excellence as demonstrated consistently by top performers in any field (Grinder & Bostic St-Clair 2002). It has also been applied to clinical conditions, such as the "skill" of schizophrenia (Grinder & Bandler 1979 p.52; Grinder & Bandler 1981 p.171; Grinder & Delozier 1986 p.62) and notable dead people of whom we have only writings, such as Jesus of Nazareth (Dilts 1992) . NLP models are widely used as the basis for learning (Tosey & Mathison 2003), training or operations, in clinical, management, educational (Michael Grinder, Righting the Educational Conveyor Belt, 1989) and other settings.

Proponents claim that know-how can be separated from the person, documented and transferred experientially (Grinder & Bandler 1975a, ibid 1975b; Patterns I ibid 1976 p.4-15), and that the ability to perform the skills can be transferred subject to the modelers own limits, which can change, and improves with practice.

Some modelers also discuss with the model their thoughts, feelings, beliefs (Dilts & Delozier 2000 p.792) - this is often not considered to be true NLP modeling, and has been labeled Analytic modeling (Grinder & Dilts, 2005). It has been argued that modeling from writings is unverifiable (both within and outside NLP)

NLP enneagrams

In studying the methods of Virginia Satir, Bandler and Grinder were introduced to a concept which she called enneagrams (1975b). Over the years, less and less emphasis has been given to enneagrams, to the point where they have had no functional part of NLP discussions for years, as the idea has been superceded by anchoring.

Various detractors of NLP had incited confusion by deliberately misrepresenting Satir's enneagrams as the engrams of Dianetics.

Enneagrams should also not be confused with the term mid-1900's academic term Engram, a neuronal network which is a theoretical neurological mechanism considered by some scientists to be the means by which memory traces are stored in the brain.

[4][5](Drenth 2003; Levelt 1995). (Note: Dianetics uses "engram" in a similar way (associating engrams erroneously with the subconscious). Within NLP, Enneagrams are proposed to give a patterned response which has been stabilized at the level of unconscious competence and involve beneficial automatic activities as well as pernicious ones like addictive behavior (Derks & Goldblatt 1985; Sinclair 1992).

The enneagram has been used to explain the NLP anchoring process that underlies patterns such as the "Swish" pattern. Sinclair (1992) theorizes that NLP processes can be explained through the neurological concepts of programming and reprogramming enneagrams. Other methods involve programming and reprogramming habits and mental associations, which some practitioners consider to be individual enneagrams (Sinclair 1992; Overdurf & Silverthorn 1995; Drenth 2003).

Brain lateralization

Some NLP proponents teach (brain) hemispheric differences (also termed brain lateralization). The core concepts of eye accessing cues and representational systems are proposed to be related to the left (analytical) and right (creative) brain hemispheric differences: a popular representation of how the brain works. Bandler & Grinder (Patterns 1977 pp.10,87) present that Milton H. Erickson used the asymmetry between dominant/non-dominant hemispheres functions such as visualization, language, and contralateral side of the body for hypnotic purposes. Robert Dilts proposes that the eyes move in various directions according to the kind of mental representations (visual/auditory/ kinesthetic) and that these representations also correspond to the brain's hemispheres. It is also claimed that various other physical cues correspond to the hemispheres of the brain, and these can be used to model individuals and to determine how they think.

History of NLP

Background

While at Kresge College, University of California, Santa Cruz, John Grinder then an Assistant Professor of linguistics was invited by Richard Bandler, then a fourth year undergraduate student to visit his Gestalt therapy group. This marks the beginning of Neuro-linguistic programming. Between 1973-1979, under the mentorship of Gregory Bateson (the author of Steps to an Ecology of Mind), the co-founders collaborated, and published several books including The Structure of Magic Volumes I & II (1975, 1976), Changing with families and Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, Volumes I & II (1977, 1978) based on the patterns of Fritz Perls, Virginia Satir, Milton H. Erickson.

One of the earliest influences on NLP were General Semantics (Alfred Korzybski) as a new perspective for looking at the world which included a kind of mental hygiene. This was a departure from the Aristotelian concepts of modern science and objective reality, and it influenced notions of programming the mind. Korzybski General semantics influenced several schools of thought, leading to a viable human potential industry and associations with emerging New Age thinking. By the late 1960s, self-help organizations such as EST, Dianetics, and Scientology had become financially successful. The Esalen human potential seminars in California began to attract people, such as the therapist and dianetics proponent Fritz Perls, as well as Gregory Bateson, Virginia Satir, and Milton H. Erickson.

The practice of neuro-linguistic programming attracted mostly therapists at first although it eventually attracted business people, sales people, artists, and "new-agers" (Hall, 1994). As it expanded, Leslie Cameron-Bandler, Judith DeLozier, Robert Dilts, and David Gordon (Therapeutic Metaphors 1978) made further contributions to NLP and the seminars of Bandler and Grinder were transcribed by Steve Andreas into a book, Frogs into Princes. This was published in 1979 and drove the demand for seminars which in turn became successful human potential attractions (Dilts, 1991). NLP is increasingly promoted in combination with New Age developments (see the Applications-Spirituality section).

Recent Developments

Since the mid 1990s NLP has become more widespread, and following the example of Richard Bandler (who attempted legal action to claim the bulk of the field as his own personal intellectual and commercial property because he could not resolve the dispute through the use of NLP (Salerno 2005). The dispute between Bandler and Grinder over trademarks and copyright was resolved in court of California in 2000 who deemed NLP a generic term (Grinder & Bostic, 2001 Appendix; Salerno 2005). NLP has undergone some changes in the following directions:

  1. Individual trainers have often introduced or idiosyncratically developed their own methods, concepts and labels, branding them under the "NLP" name (Carroll 2003)
  2. Much is now largely targeted for niche markets (particularly commercialized, cut down or self-help usage), and these often involve disagreements within the NLP world, and may be more controversial or esoteric, sometimes charismatically or evangelistically taught, often made into proprietary and customized packagings (Eisner 2000).
  3. Further to this, NLP methodologies, have increasingly been used to model more controversial phenomena, such as psychic power, magick, physical body changes and other reported states and abilities, and other "dubious activities" (Loma 2001). Often the results are marketed as a shortcut way to achieve these oneself, using NLP's "brand" for credibility.
  4. Some of the original developers, notably Richard Bandler and the stage hypnotist Paul McKenna, have encouraged these trends and the resulting fragmentation and move towards "pop NLP" has discredited the subject in the eyes of many people.
  5. As time has passed, even trainers who teach basic NLP have often been drawn (or perhaps come under competitive pressure) to focus their trainings "on something", be it business use, medical use, or personal self-help use. This has also led to modern NLP to be seen not as the "toolbox", but as yet another new age fad (Carroll 2003).

Fundamentals

Presuppositions

The presuppositions of NLP are sometimes described as Batesonian cybernetic or operational epistemology (Grinder & Bandler, 1975a; Dilts et al 1980; Dilts 1983; Grinder & Delozier 1986; Grinder & Bostic 2001; Tosey & Mathison 2003; Malloy et al 2005). A presupposition (linguistic term) is a background belief that is treated by the NLP practitioner "as if" (1911; The Philosophy of 'As If', Hans Vaihinger; Grinder & Bandler 1975a) it were literal.

According to Dilts and DeLozier (2000): "[t]he field of NLP is based on a set of fundamental presuppositions about ourselves, our behavior; and our world. NLP presuppositions, however, are not simply theoretical axioms. They are intended to be principles to live by." (italics added) (Dilts & DeLozier 2000 [6]).

The fundamental presuppositions in NLP are:

  • The map is not the territory. "NLP epistemology" follows Alfred Korzybski (1933) and Gregory Bateson's (1972, 1979) postulations that there is no such thing as " objective experience". The subjective nature of our experience never fully captures the objective world. It is assumed that each of us creates a representation of the world in which we live - that is, we create a map or model which we use to generate our behavior. Our representation or map of the world determines to a large degree what our experience of the world will be (Bandler & Grinder, 1975a; Dilts et al, 1980).
  • Life and 'Mind' are Systemic Processes. The processes that take place within a human being and between human beings and their environment are systemic (Bateson 1979). Our bodies, our societies, and our planet form an ecology of complex systems and sub-systems all of which interact with and mutually influence each other. This assumes that looking from different vantage points may result in quite different and yet equally valid descriptions and emphasis of what is important in the system (Grinder & Delozier 1986; Dilts & DeLozier 2000).

These presuppositions are considered groundbreaking by NLP proponents because of a contradiction with the modern scientific Aristotelian view that reality can be objectively measured (Grinder & Bandler 1979; Grinder & Delozier 1986; Thaler Singer 1999).

The other commonly related presuppositions are derived from the these two fundamental presuppositions (Dilts & DeLozier 2000 pp.1003-4).

The B.A.G.E.L. Model

The B.A.G.E.L. Model specifies the five elements (in mnemonic form) that purportedly comprise the behavioral cues that indicate an individual's internal processes. The B.A.G.E.L. Model is predicated on the notion that internal processes are subjectively represented in sensory terms: visually, auditory, kinesthetically and least likely, olfactory and gustatory.

Eye accessing cues, body cues, and NLP representational systems

Image:NLP neural elicitation.JPG

A core NLP training exercise involves learning to calibrate eye movements patterns with internal representations (Grinder & Bandler 1979 p.24; Dilts & Delozier 2000 p.383; Grinder & Bostic St Clair 2002 p.171). According to NLP developers, the is core tennet loosely relates to the VAK guidelines below. See chart:

  • Visual: eyes up to left or right according to dominant hemisphere access; high or shallow breathing; muscle tension in neck; high pitched/nasal voice tone; phrases such as “I see”.
  • Auditory: eyes left or right; even breathing from diaphragm; even or rhythmic muscle tension; clear midrange voice tone, sometimes tapping or whistling; phrases such as “that sounds right”
  • Kinesthetic: eyes down left or right; belly breathing and sighing; relaxed musculature; slow voice tone with long pauses; phrases such as “that feels right”.

(Dilts et al 1980; O'Connor and McDermot, 1996; Dilts & Delozier 2000 p.383). NLP theory explains these breathing and mental processing according to the varying levels of chemical composition in the blood that affects the brain, and “Visual” people tend to be fast visual thinkers and can seem untrustworthy to “kinesthetic” thinkers because thinking by feeling is inherently slow (Dilts et al 1980). It is further claimed that matching VAK predicates can build rapport with individuals. Some authors (Bradbury, 1997; Molden 2000) use internal Verbal/Auditory/Kinesthetic strategies in order to categorize people within a thinking strategies or learning styles framework for instance, that there exist visual, kinesthetic or auditory types of manager.

NLP models of experience sometimes also give a theory connecting representation systems with brain hemispheric science of left and right brain dominance for certain skills, such as logic and mathematics for engram traces in the left hemisphere, and creativity and imagination for engram traces in the right hemisphere (Bandler & Grinder, 1975a; O'Connor & McDermott, 1996). NLP proponents, such as Bandler and Grinder (1975b), Dilts (1998) and Lewis (1985) use left/right brain hemispheric differences to explain how the mind works in relation to eye accessing cues and representational systems.

Meta-model and Milton Model

The meta-model is a set of thirteen language patterns developed from Virginia Satir and Fritz Perls, as a transformational syntax (Grinder & Bandler 1975a) and is primarily designed as an information gathering tool, and is also used to challenge distortions, generalizations or deletions in the speaker's language (Bandler & Grinder, 1975a Ch3). In transformational grammar, the sentence as spoken is called "surface structure", and it is seen as a transformation of the "deep structure" (John Lyons, 1970) - this theory of language was later abandoned. In NLP's meta-model, by questioning what someone says (ie. a sentence's surface structure) for deletions, generalizations and distortions, practitioners aim to explore the beliefs behind the sentence which are not stated (i.e. the deep structure). The meta-model can be reduced to the asking "What specifically", or "How specifically?" to clarify unspecified syntactic elements.

Example 1: Distortions - Presuppositions

  • Speaker: I'm afraid my son is turning out to be as lazy as my husband
  • Challenge: Is your husband lazy?
  • Basis: Implied unconfirmed assumption that son is lazy.

Example 2: Generalizations - Lack of Referential Index (never, nobody, everybody, all, ...)

  • Speaker: Nobody pays attention to anything I say.
  • Challenge: Who specifically doesn't pay attention to you?
  • Basis: Speaker may be ignoring evidence or generalizing "some" to "all".

Example 3: Deletions - Comparatives and Superlatives (best, worst, ...)

  • Speaker: I'm not feeling so good.
  • Challenged: Compared to what, specifically?
  • Basis: Often people state a comparison to quite unreasonable grounds - some ideal or some person who hypothetically would be different - and then feel bad about "not being good enough". There is no way to know if the basis of comparison is a reasonable one unless it is identified.

The reverse set of the meta-model is the Milton-model (Grinder & Bandler 1976,1977); a collection of "artfully" vague language patterns elicited from the work of Milton H. Erickson. It is said that the use of non-specific language patterns can allow the client to make their own meaning for what is being said.

Together the meta model and the milton model form the basis for the all other NLP models.

Other Models

NLP proponents also did research in beliefs, meta programs, the T.O.T.E. model, etc. For more information, see the NLP concepts and methods category.

NLP Applications

Mental health and disability organizations

Although several aspects of NLP have been found to be largely ineffective (Singer and Lalich 1996), NLP is used, or suggested as an approach, by a some mental health bodies, including The National Phobics Society of Great Britain [8], MIND [9] (PDF), Utah State University Student Health and Wellness Center [10], The British Stammering Association [11], the Center for Development & Disability at the University of New Mexico Health Science Center School of Medicine (for autism) [12], and Advocates for Survivors of Child Abuse [13].

Psychotherapy

NLP developers modeled the first NLP applications after techniques used in family therapy, hypnosis, gestalt therapy and provocative therapy. Around 1978, NLP practitioner certification was set up as a 20 day program with the aim of training therapists. In Europe, the European NLP therapy association has been working to reform this training in line with European therapy standards.

There are claimed to be various patterns eg. the NLP fast phobia cure (Grinder & Bandler 1979 p.72,109) which often help with specific goals. Most of the basic NLP techniques and rituals can be self applied (Bandler 1985), though working with a practitioner is said to be beneficial especially for less basic change work. Qualified NLP practitioners claim to be able to do more complex NLP change work (Eisner 2000).

Hypnotherapy

One of the first comprehensive models produced within NLP (Bandler & Grinder 1976,1977) was that of Milton H. Erickson, the so-called "father of hypnotherapy". Ericksonian hypnotherapy, a permissive rather than directive style of trance utilization, is based largely upon the work of NLP founders in modeling Erickson's self-taught methodology.

Self Help and Inspirational Seminars

As a model for communication, NLP is applied to coaching for individuals and teams for personal or business development, including motivational communication and systems thinking (Pasztor 1998).

NLP is often promoted as large group seminars, similar to Landmark Forum and and EST seminars. Some of these involve day long, or several day periods of large group awareness activities including the introduction of authority figure guest speakers and promotion of New Age products. For example, Anthony Robbins promotes NLP as a "systemic approach for change" through his seminars [14], and other products. Robbins' style and approach has been criticized by for example, Ron Rhodes of the Spiritual Counterfeits Project SCP Journal 1998.

Anthony Robbins first book Unlimited power was primarily based on NLP (Unlimited power 1986 p.30). Robbins continues "to use many of the NLP and Ericksonian techniques that [he] began [his] career with" (T Robbins 1991 p.113) and promotes NLP as a "systemic approach for change" through his seminars [15], and other products. In the mid-80s Robbins developed his own technology for change called NAC which is partly based on NLP (T Robbins 1991). Robbins' style and approach has been criticized by for example, Ron Rhodes of the Spiritual Counterfeits Project SCP Journal 1998 and by Carrol (2003) for using LGAT.

Coaching and other HR applications

With the raise in popularity of topics such as emotional intelligence and coaching since 1996, many NLP trainers and consultants are now applying NLP rituals and techniques in HR application areas.

NLP is used within some educational bodies, in staff training and coaching, and courses in NLP count as Continuing professional Education by (for example) the Wisconsin Psychological Association PDF, the continuing professional education group organization "athealth.com" [16], and Santa Barbara City College Continuing Education in Psychology and Communication [17], California State University (Business and Management) [18]. It is also widely used for staff training in the British National Health Service. The editor of Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching(2001), states that NLP is used widely and has been "quite influential" as a basis for teaching English as a second language.

Energy and Spirituality

According to Bandler and Grinder (1975a, 1979), collateral energy (Bateson 1972, Bateson 1979, Grinder & Delozier 1986; Dilts & Delozier 2000 p.185) can be liberated from maladaptive patterns (1979) including phobia reduction process (Visual-Kinesthetic Synaesthesia Dissociation (VKD)) (Grinder & Bandler 1979; Figley, 1987), interventions may involve reframing, and recall of past pleasurable experiences and/or fantasy (1979 pp.115-117,174 ) so that a clients time and energy can be spent elsewhere. Collateral energy is distinct from physical kind or "santa cruzian" (Grinder & Delozier 1986) or psychic "new age" energy; collateral energy is derived from metabolism. However, Hall (2001) claims that NLP can be used to “create both positive (+) and negative (-) psychic energy which operate at polar opposites from each other”. Energy can be created by using the “right words” (Lakin 2000), and by using inner commitment (Andreas and Faulkner 1996), and rapport can create an alignment of energy levels in two different individuals regardless of physical state (Valentino, 1999). It is also claimed that by using NLP, energy can be directed outside of the body all the way to the very furthest reaches of the of the universe (James and Shephard, 2001).

Bandler often uses shamanic anecdotes in his seminars (Hall & Belnap, 1999) and Grinder refers to "first attention/second attention" and "stop the world states", terms originating from Carlos Castenada's Don Juan Matus (Grinder & Delozier, 1987). Bandler says that shaman, witch doctors, priests and philosophers alike -- all use metaphor (Therapeutic Metaphors, Gordon 1978), and according to Derks & Hollander (1998) some NLP proponents believe that every (successful) healer must make use of principles that are similar to those used by witch doctors and shaman. Some proponents state that NLP is amoral, and other says that it is compatible with any religion or spiritual context (O'Connor and McDermot, 1996).

Criticisms

Sanghera (Finanical Times 2005) reports that critics say NLP is simply a half-baked conflation of pop psychology and pseudoscience that uses jargon to disguise the fact that it is based on a set of banal, if not incorrect, presuppositions. NLP has been criticized by clinical psychologists, management scholars, linguists, psychotherapists and cult awareness groups, on various grounds. These include inconsistency, ethical questions, cult-like characteristics, promotion of unwarranted claims, and ineffectiveness. Scientists and researchers such as Heap (1991) associate NLP with gullibility, naivety of thinking, and sheer fraudulence. Scientists such as Eisner (2000) identify NLP as psychopablum. Tye (1994) characterizes NLP as a form of "psycho shamanism". Anthropologists such as Winkin (1990) consider NLP to be intellectual fraud, and charlatanry that is presented as a combination of science and new age occult.

Scientific Testing

NLP has been empirically tested over many years, and it has been found to be largely ineffective (Singer & Lalich, 1996).

The 1988 US National Committee (a board of 14 prepared scientific experts) report found that "Individually, and as a group, these studies fail to provide an empirical base of support for NLP assumptions...or NLP effectiveness. The committee cannot recommend the employment of such an unvalidated technique" (Druckman & Swets, 1988). In addition, Edgar Johnson, technical director of the Army Research Institute heading the NLP focused Project Jedi stated that "Lots of data shows that NLP doesn't work" (Squires 1988). NLP has failed to yield convincing evidence for the NLP model, and failed to provide evidence for its effectiveness (Heap 1989).

The conjecture that a person has a preferred representational system (PRS) which is observed in the choice of words has been found to be false according to rigorous research reviews (Heap 1988; Platt, 2001). The assertion that a person has a PRS which can be determined by the direction of eye movements found even less support (Heap, 1988; Platt, 2001).

Thus, objective empirical studies (Bertelsen, 1987, Bleimeister, 1988; Heap, 1988) and review papers (Platt, 2001) have consistently shown NLP to be ineffective and reviews or meta-analysis have given NLP a conclusively negative assessment, and the reiterated statement is that there is no neuro-scientific basis for any of NLP's claims, or any scientific support for its claimed efficacy (Thaler Singer and Lalich 1996; Drenth 2003; Lilienfeld et al 2003; Eisner 2000).

Due to general disillusionment with NLP, its mention in psychotherapy journals and books is becoming increasingly rare (Efran and Lukens 1990). NLP proponents have provided not one iota of scientific support for their claims, and as such NLP is considered inappropriate for thorough clinical studies (Eisner 2000).

Psychologists such as Carroll (2003) have stated that it is impossible to determine a "correct" NLP model, and that applying one particular model to everyone is over-simplistic and will be no substitute for hard earned expertise and cannot be verified through statistical methods (Carrol, 2003).

The fact that some people perceive NLP to work sometimes can be explained by the placebo effect, social pressure, superficial symptomatic rather than core treatment, distortion of fact through beliefs change misrepresenting the value in the treatment, and overestimating some apparent successes while ignoring, downplaying, or explaining away failures (Beyerstein, 1997).

Linguistic misconceptions within NLP's models

NLP developers have introduced terms and ideas of their own that are not part of the accepted body of linguistics. Nominalization is a grammatical transformation, and, according to Bandler and Grinder, nominalizations constitute linguistic distortions and deletions, but there is no evidence of any kind of this being the case (Levelt 1995). Most other Neuro-linguistic Programming concepts (eg the NLP concept of ambiguity) have the same problems. No books on linguistics or psycholingiustics mention Neuro-linguistic Programming at all.

The psycholinguist's view is that "NLP is not informed about linguistics literature, it is based on vague insights that were out of date long ago, their linguistics concepts are not properly construed or are mere fabrications, and conclusions are based upon the wrong premises. NLP theory and practice has nothing to do with neuroscientific insights or linguistics, nor with informatics or theories of programming." (Levelt, 1995).

Claims to science

NLP often associates itself with science in order to raise its own prestige (Beyerstein, 1991)) and anthropologists such as Winkin (1990) consider such promotion to be intellectually fraudulent. Grinder has stated that NLP is a science and an art, and Bandler and Grinder have used erroneously explained neuroscience to NLP (Bandler and Grinder 1975a). However, Richard Bandler and John Grinder have also stated that "NLP is not a science... we are not scientists" (Frogs into Princes, 1979). Richard Bandler claims that NLP is an educational tool and that the relationship of NLP to psychology is like the relationship beetween pharmacology and biochemistry. Despite the fact that NLP proponents have not conducted science since the early 1970s, NLP promoters still refer to the developers as scientists (Singer and Lalich 1999).

Advertising standards bodies have asked for NLP proponents to avoid promoting NLP as a new science [19]. In fact, NLP has not made any impression at all on the behavioral sciences. Bordlein (2001) suggests that NLP indulges in scientific namedropping in order to promote itself as a science. Many NLP promoters and advertisers call the originators "scientists" and use such terms as "science" to promote their ideas, "technology", and "hi-tech psychology" in order to sell NLP (Singer & Lalich, 1996).

NLP advocates attempt to associate NLP with great minds such as Einstein (Grinder & Delozier, 1987), and to imply extraordinary efficacy. Einsteinian thought supports Hume's dictum: "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence", though NLP promoters have failed to provide normal scientific evidence for efficacy or validity.

Pseudoscience

NLP has been classed as a pseudoscientific self help development (Levelt, 1995; Williams et al, 2000; Lilienfeld et al, 2003; Drenth, 2003; Bordlein 2001), in the same mould as EST (Landmark Forum) and Dianetics. The NLP community continues to claim their assumptions and methods are powerful, relying only on testimonials and anecdotal evidence to support their claims.

Historically, NLP has many historically pseudoscientific associations such as the erroneous adherence to the engram concept [20] claims to rapid cures and treatment of traumas, the use of popular new age myths such as unlimited potential, left/right brain simplicities, and past life regression, and the use marketing/recruitment models similar to that of Dianetics and other cults (Sala et al 1999).

Pseudoscience is prone to certain fallacies and characteristics. These can be; Overgeneral predictions, pseudoscientific experimentation, dogmatic adherence or recycling of un-validated claims (Winn and Wiggins, 2001)[21]. The characteristics of pseudoscience are more specifically shown thus (Lilienfeld et al, 2003) [22]:

  • The use of obscurantist language and psychobabble (eg meta programs, parapragmatics, sub-modalities etc)
  • The absence of connectivity (Levelt, 1995)
  • Over-reliance on testimonial and anecdotal evidence (Krugman et al 1999)
  • An overuse of ad hoc hypotheses designed to immunize claims from falsification (Singer 1999)
  • Emphasis on confirmation rather refutation (eg reliance on asking how rather than why)
  • Absence of boundary conditions
  • The mantra of holism and eclecticism designed to immunize from verifiable efficacy (Lilienfeld et al 2003) (Claiming that NLP is unmeasurable due to too many factors(Eisner 2000) or to simplistically “do what works”.
  • Evasion of peer review (If claims were true, why were they not properly documented and presented to the scientific community? (Eisner 2000)
  • Reversed burden of proof (away from those making claim (NLP promoters), and towards those testing the claim (Scientists)).

Pseudoscientific arguments tend to contain several or all of these factors, as can be seen in this example [23] that shows ad hoc hypotheses and holistic argument as an attempt to explain away the negative findings, and an emphasis on confirmation and reversed burden of proof etc.

In relation to current understanding of neurology and perception, NLP is in error (Bertelsen, 1987), and instead of being grounded in contemporary, scientifically derived neurological theory, NLP is based on outdated metaphors of brain functioning and is laced with numerous factual errors (Druckman and Swets 1988).

Modern neuroscience indicates that NLP's notions of neurology are erroneous and pseudoscientific in regards to: left/right brain hemispheric differences (Sala et al, 1999; Drenth, 2003, Dilts et al 2000), the association of eye movements or body gestures to brain hemispheres, and in the universal division of humanity to 40% visual, 40% auditive, and 20% kinesthesic [24](Winkin 1999), in the adherence of NLP to positive/negative and psychic out of body energy (Sala 1999). In fact, Winkin (1990) asserts that NLP's association with science is as distant as astrology's association to astronomy. NLP is also based on some of Freud's most flawed and pseudoscientific thinking that has been rejected by the mainstream psychology community for decades (Eisner 2000), and NLP’s association of the engram with the unconscious is similar to that of Dianetics (Levelt 1995).

Atheoretical Pretence

According to Dilts et al "Neuro-Linguistic Programming...makes no commitment to theory, but rather has the status of a model -- a set of procedures whose usefulness not truthfulness is to be the measure of its worth...I choose the term model deliberately and contrast it with the term theory. A model is simply a description of how something works without any commitment regarding why it might be that way." (Dilts et al, 1980, Forward)

However, this emphasis on a results-oriented model (what causes what to happen?) as opposed to explanatory theory is also found in well-established sciences, such as physics. In Richard Feynman's book, "Q.E.D., the Strange Theory of Quantum Electro-Dynamics, which explains his QED theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics, Feynman specifically states that QED solely describes the behavior of particles, and does not in any way even attempt to explain the mechanism which causes the behavior.

To scientists and philosophers of science, a model is a hypothesis (or set of related hypotheses) that has been confirmed through experimentation to possess at least limited validity. A hypothesis is a specific, testable and falsifiable proposition or idea. A (scientific) law is a generalization that has been confirmed through repeated experimentation. A theory is an explanation of the generalization that the law expresses.[25][26][27]

Thus the content of a "model" -- as described by Dilts et al -- is comparable to a model and law in science. Science has produced laws and models without any associated theory. Consider Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation as an example (Newton, 1729) [28]. Newton's Laws are "a description of how something works without any commitment regarding why it might be that way". The production of models and laws independent of explanatory theory is not peculiar to NLP.

Bandler and Grinder (1975a, p.5,7,11-12; 1975b, p.181) quote from Vaihinger (1924) and it is asserted that '[w]e have no idea about the "real" nature of things, and we're not particularly interested in what's true. The function of modeling is to arrive at descriptions which are useful. So if we happen to mention something that you know from a scientific study, or from statistics is inaccurate, realize that a different level of experience is being offered here. We're not offering you something that's true, just things that are useful ' (Bandler and Grinder, 1979, p.7). As such, Dilts et al's statement can be understood as an attempt to assert the Fictionalist position that is expressed in Bandler and Grinder (1975a, p.5,7,11-12; 1975b, p.181; 1979, p.7). However, the appeal to Fictionalism -- as well as Korzybski's form of Representationalism (Bandler & Grinder, 1975a, pp.7-8; Bandler & Grinder, 1975b, pp.7-12,180-1; Dilts et al, 1980, pp.3-4) suggest that NLP is theory laden and that Bandler does in fact "do theory" (Singer & Lalich, 1996). Also, after modeling, many NLP proponents relate their models to existing theories, or develop new theories based upon them. Some NLP practitioners claim that NLP shares its intellectual antecedents with the Cognitive Sciences. Robert Dilts asserts that NLP "is theoretically rooted in the principles of neurology, psychophysiology, linguistics, cybernetics, and communication theory" (Dilts et al 1980). This requires reconciliation with the claim that "Neuro-Linguistic Programming...makes no commitment to theory". Furthermore, Fictionalism is not without problems (Bunge, 1993; [29]; [30]; [31];[32]) and any project predicated upon a Fictionalist epistemology must include a defense of that beleaguered doctrine. No such apologia is to be found in the NLP literature. NLP presents a Fictionalist epistemology in the absence of any commitment to developing predictive models together with an aversion to empirical testing (see Pseudoscience sub-section). This combination places NLP within the realm of free speculation, hence the absence of scientific support and evidence of efficacy (Heap, 1988; Sharpley, 1987; Lilienfeld, 2003; Singer and Lalich, 1999).

Again, it must be pointed out that subatomic physics theorists long ago adopted a viewpoint that describing what happens under what conditions is sufficient when the underlying mechanism is not evident.

Extraordinary Claims

Numerous extraordinary and unsupported claims have been made by some NLP promoters. There have been claims that the hightening of perception using NLP can allow a novice martial artist to beat an expert (Bandler 1993. p105), and that it is possible to develop photographic memory through the use of NLP (Bandler and Grinder 1975b). Proponents such as Anthony Robbins has stated that "it's not uncommon for the turnaround on a phobia such as heights or spiders to be under 10 minutes" and that you can "make someone fall in love with you in 5 minutes" (Griffin & Goldsmith, 1985, p. 41). Anthony Robbins has also claimed that through neurolinguistic programming, clinicians can "cure people of tumors and long-standing psychological problems", and that NLP also has allowed him to "make a woman have an orgasm without touching her," and even "bring a person who was brain-dead back to life" (Leikind & McCarthy, 1991). In fact, the divorce of Tony Robbins despite his commercial promotion of "Perfect Marriage" counseling has also led to a great deal of disenchantment from his own followers (Salerno 2005).

Image:Scientology of achievement.JPG

Ethical Concerns

Ethical concerns of NLP’s encouragement towards manipulation have been raised. As such, NLP is seen as encouraging people to find more ways to manipulate individuals against their will within seduction, sales and business settings. NLP book titles include "The Unfair Advantage in Sales" and "The Science and Technology of Getting What You Want" and “Get Anyone to Do Anything”.

The therapy and coaching fields require an ethical code of conduct (eg: Psychotherapy and Counseling Federation of Australia Ethical Guidelines). It has been found that NLP certified practitioners often show a weak grasp of ethics (Hardiman 1994).

In addition, "Ethical standards bodies and other professional associations state that unless a technique, process, drug, or surgical procedure can meet requirements of clinical tests, it is ethically questionable to offer it to the public, especially if money is to change hands" (Beyerstein 1997). NLP is also criticised for unethically encouraging the belief in non existent maladies and insecurities by otherwise normal individuals (Salerno 2005).

Dubious applications

According to Singer & Lalich, (1996), NLP has been found to be largely ineffective, and the general behavior of NLP advocates is one of wishful thinking and passing the buck which is characteristic of quick fix schemes. However, NLP is promoted for use within a range of subject areas.

  • NLP as a Dubious Therapy: Dr Barrett, the organizer of Quackwatch, describes NLP as a therapy to avoid[33], and The National Council Against Health Fraud (Loma 2001) classify NLP is a "dubious therapy". Hypnotherapist D. Morgan states that the methods of NLP are "devious, indirect, and doubtful" (Morgan 1993). NLP certification for therapists in general still does not require any professional qualifications (Eisner 2000). NLP is described along with feldenkrais by Children in Therapy as "pseudoscientific" "unvalidated and probably useless, ie quackery" [34]. NLP is highly suggestive-that suggestion plays a leading role in the promotion of alleged memories of childhood sex abuse [35]. Currently, there is criticism from psychotherapists about the promotion of NLP and other dubious therapies even within psychotherapy associations (Eisner 2000; Lilienfeld et al 2003).
  • Human Resources: As with other pseudoscientific subjects, human resource experts such as Von Bergen et al (1997) consider NLP to be inappropriate for management and human resource training. NLP has been found to be most ineffective concerning influence/persuasion and modeling of skills (Druckman et al 1988). There is a general view that NLP is dubious and is not to be taken seriously in a business context (Hardiman 1994; Summers 1996). In addition to scientists, human resource and management researchers also state that NLP's principle associations are erroneous, it is practically ineffective, and therefore inappropriate for use in human resources and management training (Von Bergen et al 1997). Within management training there have also been complaints towards NLP concerning undue and forced adoption of fundamental beliefs tantamount to a forced religious conversion (Singer 1995). Hardiman (1994) states that NLP is highly problematic when applied to human resource management due to it's lack of effectiveness and the fact that it is ethically dubious.
  • NLP as Educational Pseudoscience: NLP is considered a pseudoscientific fad within education and although NLP has no reliable neuroscience foundation, it is sometimes considered as part of "accelerated learning" or "brain based learning" (Walberg 2003). There is no reliable evidence to support the use of NLP within education, and as such, the use of this unvalidated method is discouraged by educational experts.
  • Cosmetic Effect Claims: Dubious treatments such as hypnotic breast enhancement and penis enlargement often claim to use NLP processes to produce this effect. If such miraculous effects had actually been achieved, then why have they not been properly documented by the people making these claims, and presented to the scientific community? (Eisner 2000).
  • Occult and New Age Practices: With its promotion with Tai Chi, Meditation, and Dianetics, NLP is in the margins of contemporary obscurantism (Winkin 1990). NLP is often criticised as being a dubious new age therapy. This is often as a result of practitioners attempting to model spiritual experiences, which inherently, are lacking in scientific support. NLP is sometimes associated with questionable pseudoscientific therapies such as EMDR, EFT and other "power therapies" [36][37]. Also, some people who sell psychic services such as remote viewing or remote seduction, sometimes promote this by relating these services with NLP. NLP's new age background often leads to it being sold in combination with shamanic methods of magic such as those by (by Richard Bandler) or Huna (by Tad James). Bandler often used anecdotes and metaphors about the occult in his workshops and large group awareness training LGAT seminars (Hall & Belnap, 1999) and teaches workshops in practical shamanism.


Cult characteristics

Tippet (1994) Langone (1993) Singer (2003), Eisner (2000), Sharpley (1987) Novopashin (2004), Heap (1991), Winkin (1990), Barrett (2003), Shupe & Darnell (2000), Christopher (2004), Helish (2004), all consider NLP to be a cult. Some NLP processes are seen as an intrinsic part of modern ritual mind control tactics (Crabtree, 2002), NLP processes are used within mild and agressive cults. The cult awareness organisation Watchman Fellowship keeps close records of NLP's activities.

Similar to other pseudoscientific subjects such as Dianetics and EST, NLP is ineffective, but is adopted as a pretext for applying ritual, quasi-scientific authority control, dissociation, reduced resistance, reduced rationalization, and social pressure to obtain compliance from the cult's victim or to induce dependence on the cult (Langone 1993). Thus, NLP processes can be used to reduce resistance, only in combination with the usual high social pressure, threats, and authority control used within cults, LGATs [38], large seminars or similar social pressure situations - in order to make the victim passive and controllable.

NLP has been criticised within the business sector for being coercive, including undue and forced adoption of fundamental beliefs and intense confrontational psychological techniques, tantamount to forced religious conversion (Singer 1995). Some destructive NLP cults such as NLP Rekaunt have been under scrutiny due to concerns over mass suicides and undue psychological damage to participants[39].

Buzzwords and trademarks

NLP's existing patterns, processes and jargon are modified and rebranded for purely promotional purposes. Many trainers and authors still use the generic term NLP (eg: Robert Dilts, Steve Andreas), though in response to Bandler's legal attempt in the 1990s to gain the use of the term "NLP" as personal property, several others were legally advised to train under a different name while still referring to NLP as the basis for this:

  • John Grinder teaches New Code of NLP
  • Anthony Robbins teaches NAC (Neuro Associative ConditioningTM)
  • Michael Hall teaches Neuro SemanticsTM
  • Tad James teaches Advanced Neuro DynamicsTM & Time Line TherapyTM
  • Richard Bandler himself now teaches his own offshoot of NLP, called DHE (Design Human EngineeringTM)
  • Margo Anand promotes a form of NLP called SkyDancing TantraTM

"NLP has been marketed to the general public using a broad brush approach to solutions" (Carroll, 2003), and adopts conveniently broad and simple terms, popular psychology, and pseudoscience and myths about the brain to promote its claims (Drenth, 2003). NLP lacks a coherent theory that would explain its terminology and mechanisms of action; it uses anecdotal stories and testimonials as "evidence", while lacks empirical support. NLP is said to have many characteristics of other pseudosciences: scientific-sounding jargon, reliance on anecdotal evidence, unsubstantiated claims of rapid cures, absence of a sound theoretical basis, and over-promotion for financial gains (Krugman et al 1985).

References

Notes

  1. {{if
|{{{3|}}}
|{{qif
 |test={{{{{{3|}}}}}}
 |then=^
 |else={{{3|}}}
}}
|Dilts_1980}} {{qif
 |test={{{Authorlink|}}}
 |then={{wikilink
   |1={{{Authorlink}}}
   |2={{qif
     |test={{{Author|}}}
     |then=Dilts, Robert B Dilts R, Grinder,J. Bandler,R  Cameron-Bandler,L, DeLozier J,
     |else={{{Last|}}}{{qif
       |test={{{First|}}}
       |then=, {{{First}}}
     }}
   }}
 }}
 |else={{qif
   |test={{{Author|}}}
   |then=Dilts, Robert B Dilts R, Grinder,J. Bandler,R  Cameron-Bandler,L, DeLozier J,
   |else={{{Last|}}}{{qif
     |test={{{First|}}}
     |then=, {{{First}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Coauthors|}}}
 |then=, {{{Coauthors}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Date|}}}
 |then= ({{{Date}}})
 |else={{qif
   |test={{{Year|}}}
   |then={{qif
     |test={{{Month|}}}
     |then= ({{{Month}}} 1980)
     |else= (1980)
   }}
 }}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Author|{{{Last|{{{Year|}}}}}}}}}
 |then=.

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Chapter|}}}
 |then= "{{{Chapter}}}"

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Editor|}}}
 |then= {{{Editor}}}

}} {{qif

 |test={{{URL|}}}
 |then=[{{{URL}}} NLP: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience.]
 |else=NLP: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience.

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Others|}}}
 |then=, {{{Others}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Edition|}}}
 |then=, {{{Edition}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Pages|}}}
 |then=, {{{Pages}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Publisher|}}}
 |then=, {{qif
   |test={{{Location|}}}
   |then={{{Location}}}: 
 }}Cupertino, California: Meta Publications,

}}{{qif

 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. {{{ID}}}

}}.

References

See Neuro-linguistic programming: Bibliography for a fuller list of Books and articles not directly referenced on this page.

B
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bandler, Richard & John Grinder
| Title=The Structure of Magic I: A Book About Language and Therapy
| Publisher=Palo Alto, CA: Science & Behavior Books
| Year=1975a
| ID=ISBN 08314-0044-7}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bandler, Richard & John Grinder
| Title=Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume 1
| Publisher=Cupertino, CA :Meta Publications
| Year=1975b
| ID=ISBN 091699001X}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bandler, Richard, Grinder, John & DeLozier, Judith
| Title=Patterns of the Hypnotic Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D. Volume II
| Publisher=Meta Publications
| Year=1977
| ID=ISBN 1555520537}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bandler, Richard & John Grinder
| Title=Frogs into Princes: Neuro Linguistic Programming
| Publisher=Moab, UT: Real People Press
| Year=1979
| ID=ISBN 0911226192}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bandler, Richard & John Grinder
| Title=Reframing: Neurolinguistic programming and the transformation of meaning
| Publisher=Moab, UT: Real People Press
| Year=June 1983
| ID=ISBN 0911226257}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bateson, Gregory
| Title=Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology | Publisher=University Of Chicago Press
| Year=1972 | ID=ISBN 0226039056}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bateson, Gregory
| Title=Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences) | Publisher=Hampton Press, Incorporated; New Ed edition (August, 2002) | Year=1979 | ID=ISBN 0525166902}}
  • ^ {{Book reference
| Author=Barrett, D. V.
| Title=The New Believers - A survey of sects, cults and alternative religions
| Publisher=UK, Cassell & Co.
| Year=2003
| ID=1844030407
| URL=http://print.google.com/print%3Fq%3D%2522The%2BNew%2BBelievers%2522&sig=B6hmczaVX4QJcqHn82X0410uWjA}}
  • Barrett, D. (1997) Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions: A World Survey and Sourcebook. Pub Blandford.
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Bertelsen, Preben & Lars Hem:
| Title=Om begrebet: klientens model af verden (??: the client's model of the world)
| Journal=Psyke & Logos
| Year=1987
| Volume=2
| Pages=375-408}}
| Author=Bliemeister, J
| Title=Empirische Uberprufung zentraler theoretischer Konstrukte des Neurolinguistischen Programmierens (NLP) (Empirical verification of central theoretical constructs of neurolinguistic programming (NLP).)
| Journal=Zeitschrift f klinische Psychologie, Forschung und Praxis
| Year=1988
| Volume=17(1)
| Pages=21-30}}
  • ^ Bördlein, Christoph (2001). Das "Neurolinguistische Programmieren" (NLP) - Hochwirksame Techniken oder haltlose Behauptungen? Schulheft, 103 , 117-129.
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Bostic St Clair, Carmen & John Grinder
| Title=Whispering in the Wind
| Publisher=Scotts Valley, CA:J & C Enterprises
| Year=2002
| ID=ISBN 0-9717223-0-7
}}
  • Bradbury, A (1997) NLP for business success. Kogan Page.
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Bradley, E J & Heinz J Biedermann
| Title=Bandler and Grinder's Communication Analysis: Its historical context and contribution.   | Journal=Psychotherapy, Theory and Research
| Year=1985
| Volume=22
| Pages=59-62}}
  • ^ Brothers B.J. (1992) Spirituality and couples : heart and soul in the therapy process New York : Haworth Press.
  • ^ Bunge, M. (1993). Realism and Antirealism in Social Science, Theory and Decision (Historical Archive), Volume 35, Number 3, Pages 207-235, Springer Science+Business
C
  • Christopher, P. (2004) New Religions: A Guide : New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. Oxford University Press ISBN: 0195220420
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author = John Clabby, PhD, Robert O’Connor, MD
| Title=Teaching Learners to Use Mirroring: Rapport Lessons From Neurolinguistic Programming
| Journal=Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.
| Year=2004
| Volume=Vol. 36, No. 8
| Pages=3
| URL=https://www.stfm.org/fmhub/fm2004/September/John541.pdf}}
| Author=Craft A.
| Title=Neuro-linguistic Programming and learning theory
| Journal=The Curriculum Journal, Routledge
| Year=March 2001
| Volume=Volume 12, Number 1
| Pages=125-136(12)
| URL=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?title=neurolinguistic+programming&title_type=tka&author=craft&year_from=1997&year_to=2005&database=1&pageSize=20&index=1}}
D
  • ^ Derks and Hollander (1998) Systemic Voodoo. ISBN 1907388896
  • ^ Derks, L. & Goldblatt, R.,(1985) The Feedforward Conception of Consciousness: A Bridge between Therapeutic Practice and Experimental Psychology. The William James Foundation, Amsterdam.
  • ^ {{Web reference
| Author=Carroll, Robert T.
| title=The Skeptic's Dictionary
| url=http://skepdic.com/neurolin.html
| Publisher=.
| date=2003}}
  • ^ {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B, DeLozier, Judith A
| Title=Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding
| Publisher=NLP Univsersity Press
| Yate=2000
| Url=http://www.nlpuniversitypress.com/
| ID=ISBN 0970154003}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B, Grinder, John, Bandler, Richard & DeLozier, Judith A
| Title=Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I - The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience
| Publisher=Meta Publications
| Year=1980
| ID=ISBN 0916990079}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B, McDonald, Robert
| Title=Tools of the spirit
| Publisher=NLP University Press
| Year=1997}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B, Todd Epstein, Robert W Dilts
| Title=Tools for Dreamers: Strategies for Creativity
| Publisher=Palo Alto, CA: Meta Publications
| Year=1991
| ID=ISBN 0916990265}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B
| Title=Modeling With NLP
| Publisher=Palo Alto, CA: Meta Publications
| Year=1998
| ID=ISBN 0916990419}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Dilts, Robert B
| Title=Cognitive Patterns of Jesus of Nazareth
| Publisher=Ben Lomond, CA: Dynamic Learning Publications
| Year=1992
| ID=ISBN }}
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Drenth, J.D.
| Title=Growing anti-intellectualism in Europe; a menace to science
| Journal=Studia Psychologica
| Year=2003
| Volume=45
| Pages=5-13.
| URL=http://www.psychologia.sav.sk/sp/2003/sp1-03.htm#1

}}

  • ^ {{Book reference
| Author=Druckman, Daniel &  John A Swets, (Eds)
| Title=Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques
| Publisher=Washington DC: National Academy Press
| Year=1988
| ID=ISBN 0309037921
| URL=http://www.nap.edu/books/0309037921/html
| Pages=138-149.

}} Retrieved 25 Aug 2005

E
| Author=Einspruch, E. L & Forman, B. D. 
| Title=Neuro-linguistic programming in the treatment of phobias
| Publisher=Psychotherapy in Private Practice
| Volume=6(1)
| Pages=91-100.
| Year=1988
| Url=-}}
G
  • Gallo, F, (2001) Energy Psychology in Psychotherapy. Norton and Company publishers.
  • Gallo, F, (1998) Energy Psychology Norton and Company publishers.
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Gordon, David
| Title=Therapeutic Metaphors
| Publisher=Meta Publications
| Year=1978
| ID=ISBN 0-916990-04-4}}
  • Griffin, N., & Goldsmith, L. (1985, March). The charismatic kid: Tony Robbins, 25, gets rich peddling a hot self-help program. Life, 8, 41-46.
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Grinder, John & Judith DeLozier
| Title=Turtles All the Way Down: Prerequisites to Personal Genius
| Publisher=Scoots Valley, CA: Grinder & Associates
| Year=1987
| ID=ISBN 1555520227}}
  • {{Web reference
| Author=Grinder, John
| title=Interview in London on New Code of NLP
| Publisher=Inspiritive, Sydney Australia
| url=http://www.inspiritive.com.au/jg.htm
| date=2003
| ID=-}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Grinder, John & Richard Bandler
| Title=The Structure of Magic II: A Book About Communication and Change
| Publisher=Palo Alto, CA: Science & Behavior Books
| Year=1975
| ID=ISBN 0831400498
| url=http://www.nlpwhisperingthewind.com/}}
H
  • Hall, M (2001) The Spirit of NLP. Crown House Publishing ISBN: 1899836047
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Hall, L Michael & Barbara P Belnap
| Title=The Sourcebook of Magic
| Publisher=Carmarthen, UK: Crown House Publishing
| Year=1999
| ID=ISBN 1899836225}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Hall, L Michael
| Meta-States: Reflexivity in Human States of Consciousness
| Publisher=CET Publications, Grand Junction, CO.
| Year=1994}}
  • ^ Hardiman (1994) NLP background and issues. Industrial relations review and report No 560 May
  • Summers, L. (1996) Training & Development. Alexandria: Jan 1996. Vol. 50, Iss. 1; pg. 30, 2 pgs
  • ^ Heap, M. (1989) Neurolinguistic programming: What is the evidence? In D Waxman D. Pederson. I, Wilkie, and P Mellett(Eds) Hypnosis: The fourth european congress at Oxford (pp 118-124) London. Whurr Publishers.
  • Heap.M. Dryden.W. (1991) Hypnotherapy : a handbook. Publisher: Open University Press, 1991.
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Heap, Michael (Ed)
| Title=Hypnosis: Current Clinical, Experimental and Forensic Practices
| Publisher=London, UK: Croom Helm
| Year=1988
| ID=ISBN 0709947798}}
  • Helisch. M (2004) Veranstaltung:- Gesellschaftliche Funktion, Entwicklung und Sozialisation von Emotionen Seitenzahl: 39 Issue: 1
  • ^ Raso. J. (1994) "Alternative" Healthcare: A Comprehensive Guide. Prometheus Books. ISBN: 0879758910
  • Howell, Tom (2001). Cults and Small Religions. Retrieved August 29, 2005.
J
  • James T, Shephard. D, (2001) Presenting Magically: Transforming Your Stage Presence with NLP Crown House Publishing ISBN 1899836527
  • Joyce, T, (1989) Gnosis no 12, Hubbards Ladder. Pub Chichester.
K
L
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Langone, Michael D (Ed)
| Title=Recovery from Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse
| Publisher=New York, NY: W W Norton & Company
| Year=1993
| ID=ISBN 0393313212}}
M
  • {{Journal reference
| Author=Malloy, T. E., Bostic St Clair, C. & Grinder, J.
| Title=Steps to an ecology of emergence
| Journal=Cybernetics & Human Knowing
| Year=2005
| Volume=Vol. 11, no. 3
| Pages=102-119.
| URL=http://www.psych.utah.edu/stat/dynamic_systems/Content/examples/Ecology-of-Emergence_Galley-proofs_Malloy-et-al.pdf

}}

  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Michie, S, M Johnston, C Abraham, R Lawton, D Parker & A Walker
| Title=Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach
| Journal=Quality & Safety in Health Care
| Year=2005
| Volume=14
| Pages=26-33
| URL=http://qhc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/14/1/26}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Milliner, Charlotte
| Title=NLP a framework for excellence, Preface by John Grinder
| Publisher=Scotts Valley, Calif
| Year=1988 }}
  • {{Journal reference
| Author=Morgan, Dylan A
| Title=Scientific Assessment of NLP (a review of Heap's 1988 conclusions)
| Journal=Journal of the National Council for Psychotherapy & Hypnotherapy Register
| Year=1993
| Volume=Spring 1993
| Pages=-
| url=http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/morganic/art_nlp.htm
 }}
See Dylan Morgan bio Retrieved 25 Aug 2005 Retrieved 24 Aug 2005.
  • Molden D. (2000) NLP Business Masterclass. Financial Times Prentice Hall ISBN: 0273650165
N
O
  • {{Book reference
| Author=O'Connor, Joseph & Ian McDermott
| Title=Principles of NLP
| Publisher=London, UK: Thorsons
| Year=1996
| ID=ISBN 0722531958}}
  • Overdurf, J, Silverthorn, J (1995) Training Trances: Multi-Level Communication in Therapy and Training Metamorphous Press; 3rd edition ISBN: 1555520693
  • {{qif
 |test={{{Authorlink|}}}
 |then={{wikilink
   |1={{{Authorlink}}}
   |2={{qif
     |test={{{Author|}}}
     |then=O'Connor, Joseph & John Seymour
     |else={{{Last|}}}{{qif
       |test={{{First|}}}
       |then=, {{{First}}}
     }}
   }}
 }}
 |else={{qif
   |test={{{Author|}}}
   |then=O'Connor, Joseph & John Seymour
   |else={{{Last|}}}{{qif
     |test={{{First|}}}
     |then=, {{{First}}}
   }}
 }}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Coauthors|}}}
 |then=, {{{Coauthors}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Date|}}}
 |then= ({{{Date}}})
 |else={{qif
   |test={{{Year|}}}
   |then={{qif
     |test={{{Month|}}}
     |then= ({{{Month}}} 1993)
     |else= (1993)
   }}
 }}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Author|{{{Last|{{{Year|}}}}}}}}}
 |then=.

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Chapter|}}}
 |then= "{{{Chapter}}}"

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Editor|}}}
 |then= {{{Editor}}}

}} {{qif

 |test={{{URL|}}}
 |then=[{{{URL}}} Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Psychological Skills for Understanding and Influencing People]
 |else=Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Psychological Skills for Understanding and Influencing People

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Others|}}}
 |then=, {{{Others}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Edition|}}}
 |then=, {{{Edition}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Pages|}}}
 |then=, {{{Pages}}}

}}{{qif

 |test={{{Publisher|}}}
 |then=, {{qif
   |test={{{Location|}}}
   |then={{{Location}}}: 
 }}Aquarian Press London, UK: Thorsons

}}{{qif

 |test={{{ID|}}}
 |then=. ISBN 1855383446

}}.

P
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Platt, Garry
| Title=NLP - Neuro Linguistic Programming or No Longer Plausible?
| Journal=Training Journal
| Year=2001
| Volume=May
| Pages=10-15
| URL=http://www.sueknight.co.uk/Publications/Articles/NLP_Plausible.htm}}
Retrieved 24 Aug 2005.
  • ^  {{Journal reference
| Author = Parker, I.
| Title =
| Year = 1999
| Journal = Annual Review of Critical Psychology
| Volume = 1
|Pages = pp. 3-18}} (ISSN: 1464-0538)
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Pasztor, A.
| Title=Subjective Experience Divided and Conquered
| Journal=Communication and Cognition
| Year=1998
| Volume=Vol. 31, nr.1, Approaching Consciousness, Part II, E. Myin (ed.)
| Pages=73-102
| URL=http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/pasztor98subjective.html}}
S
  • Sala, S.D, editor (1999) Mind Myths. Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain. Wiley.
  • ^ Salerno, S (2005); Sham : How the Self-Help Movement Made America Helpless. Crown Publishers ISBN 1400054095
  • ^ {{Citenewsauthor
| surname=Sanghera | given=S
| title=Look into my eyes and tell me I'm learning not to be a loser
| date=Aug 26, 2005
| org=Financial Times, London (UK)
| url=http://news.ft.com/cms/s/770f7e96-15cd-11da-8085-00000e2511c8.html}}
  • Schacter.D (1997) Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past. Publisher: Basic Books; ISBN 0465075525
  • ^  Seitz, V A., Cohn, W A. (1992) Using the Psychology of Influence in Job Interviews. Business Forum. Los Angeles: Summer 1992.Vol.17, Iss. 3; pg. 14, 4 pgs
  • Sharpley C.F. “Research Findings on Neurolinguistic Programming: Nonsupportive Data or an Untestable Theory” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1987 Vol. 34, No. 1, 103-107

{{Journal reference

| Author=Shupe, Anson & Susan E Darnell
| Title=CAN, We Hardly Knew Ye: Sex, Drugs, Deprogrammers? Kickbacks, and Corporate Crime in the (old) Cult Awareness Network
| Booktitle=Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
| Year=October 2000
| Pages=Appendix B}}
  • Sinclair. J. (1992) An ABC of NLP. Publisher: Self-published (ASPEN) ISBN 0951366017
  • Squires. S. (1988) The Pentagon's Twilight Zone. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. : Apr 17, 1988
  • ^ {{Book reference
| Author=Thaler Singer, Margaret & Janja Lalich
| Title=Crazy Therapies :  What they are? Do they work?
| Publisher=New York, NY: Jossey Bass
| Year=1996
| ID=0787902780}}
  • {{Book reference
| Author=Singer, Margaret
| Title=Cults in Our Midst : The Continuing Fight Against Their Hidden Menace
| Publisher=New York, NY: Jossey Bass
| Year=1995
| ID=ISBN 0787967416}}
See Margaret Singer and Excerpts from 'Cults in Our Midst' Retrieved 25 Aug 2005
  • {{Journal reference
| Author=Skinner, H. and Stephens, P.
| Title=Speaking the Same Language: Exploring the relevance of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Marketing Communications
| Journal=Journal of Marketing Communications
| Year=2003
| Volume=Volume 9, Number 3 / September
| Pages=177-192
| URL=http://journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/openurl.asp?genre=article&eissn=1466-4445&volume=9&issue=3&spage=177}}
T
  • {{Citenewsauthor
| surname=Tippet
| given=Gary
| title=Inside the cults of mind control
| date=3 Apr 1994
| org=Melbourne, Australia: Sunday Age
| url=http://www.rickross.com/reference/general/general756.html}} Retrieved 28 Aug 2005
  • {{Journal reference
| Author=Tosey P.; Mathison J.
| Title=Neuro-linguistic programming and learning theory: a response
| Journal=The Curriculum Journal, Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group
| Year=September 2003a
| Volume=Volume 14, Number 3
| Pages=371-388(18)
| URL=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?title=neuro-linguistic+programming+epistemology&title_type=tka&year_from=1997&year_to=2005&database=1&pageSize=20&index=1

}}

  • {{Conference reference
| Author=Tosey P.; Mathison J.
| Title=European Conference on Educational Research, University of Hamburg, 17-20
| Booktitle=Neuro-linguistic programming: its potential for learning and teaching in formal education
| Year=September 2003b
| Pages=-}}
  • {{Journal reference
| Author=Tosey P.; Mathison J.; Michelli D.
| Title=Mapping Transformative Learning: The Potential of Neuro-Linguistic Programming
| Journal=Journal of Transformative Education
| Year=2005
| Volume=Vol. 3, No. 2
| Pages=140-167
| URL=http://jtd.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/3/2/140}}
  • ^ Tye, M. J. C. T. (1994). Neurolinguistic programming: Magic or myth? Journal of Accelerative Learning & Teaching, 19, 309-342.
  • ^ Winn, C.M , and Wiggins,A.W (2001) QUANTUM LEAPS..in the wrong direction: Where real science ends and pseudoscience begins. Joseph Henry Press.
V
  • ^ Vaihinger, H. (1924). The Philosophy of "As If.", Routledge, Kegan and Paul Ltd, London, England
  • ^ Valentino, A (1999) Personality Selling : Using NLP and the Enneagram to Understand People and How They Are Influenced Vantage Point Publishing ISBN: 0966773233
  • ^ {{Journal reference
| Author=Von Bergen, C W, Barlow Soper, Gary T Rosenthal, Lamar V Wilkinson
| Title=Selected alternative training techniques in HRD
| Journal=Human Resource Development Quarterly
| Year=1997
| Volume=8(4)
| Pages=281-294}}
W
  • Walberg H.J. (2003) Improving Educational Productivity. Laboratory for Student Success. LSS.
  • ^ Williams, W F. general editor.(2000) Encyclopedia of pseudoscience

Publisher Facts On File New York.

  • Winkin Y 1990 Eléments pour un procès de la P.N.L. , MédiAnalyses, no. 7, septembre, 1990, pp. 43-50.

See also

Developers

(*)Grinder & Bandler are considered the co-creators/co-originators of NLP.

Intellectual Antecedents

(src: Grinder & Bandler, 1975, 1975b; Grinder & Bostic St-Clair 2002)

External links

de:Neurolinguistische Programmierung fi:Neurolingvistinen ohjelmointi fr:Programmation neuro-linguistique hu:NLP it:Programmazione neuro linguistica ja:Neuro-Linguistic_Programming nl:Neurolinguïstisch_programmeren pl:Neurolingwistyczne programowanie ru:Нейролингвистическое программирование sv:NLP tr:NLP

Personal tools